HomeConditionsHereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis

Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis

Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis (hATTR) is a rare genetic disorder that causes abnormal protein accumulation in various organs. Symptoms can include neurological, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and ocular manifestations. Diagnosis requires genetic testing, and treatment aims to manage symptoms and slow disease progression. Liver transplantation and emerging therapies like RNAi and TTR stabilizers show promise in managing the condition. Early diagnosis and proper management are essential for improving patient outcomes.

Best medications for Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis

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Introduction to Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis

Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis (hATTR) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production and function of transthyretin (TTR) protein. TTR is a transport protein responsible for carrying thyroid hormone and vitamin A throughout the body. Mutations in the TTR gene cause the protein to misfold and accumulate as abnormal deposits, known as amyloid fibrils, in various tissues and organs.

Symptoms and Clinical Presentation

The symptoms of hATTR amyloidosis can vary widely depending on which organs are affected by the amyloid deposits. The disease can involve the peripheral nerves, heart, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and eyes. Neurological manifestations are common in hATTR amyloidosis and may include numbness, tingling, and weakness in the limbs. Other neurological symptoms can include autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary dysfunction. Cardiac involvement is another hallmark of hATTR amyloidosis. It can lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and edema. In some cases, gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption, may be observed. Kidney dysfunction and ocular manifestations, such as glaucoma or vitreous opacities, can also occur.


Diagnosing hATTR amyloidosis can be challenging due to its nonspecific symptoms and rarity. A thorough medical history, physical examination, and family history are essential in suspecting the disease. Genetic testing is required to confirm the diagnosis and identify specific mutations in the TTR gene. Additional diagnostic tests may include a nerve conduction study and electromyography to assess peripheral nerve involvement, echocardiography or cardiac MRI to evaluate cardiac function, and biopsy of affected organs to detect amyloid deposits.

Treatment Options

The management of hATTR amyloidosis mainly focuses on symptom relief, slowing disease progression, and improving quality of life. Several treatment options are available, depending on the organs involved and the severity of symptoms. Liver transplantation can be considered in some cases, as the liver produces most of the circulating TTR. By replacing the patient's liver with a healthy one, the production of mutant TTR can be halted. In recent years, novel therapeutic approaches have emerged, including RNA interference (RNAi) therapies and TTR stabilizers. RNAi therapies aim to halt the production of abnormal TTR protein, while stabilizers work to prevent the misfolding and deposition of TTR. Multiple clinical trials are ongoing to assess the efficacy and safety of these emerging treatments. Supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and cardiac medications, is also important in managing the symptoms and complications associated with hATTR amyloidosis.


Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal TTR protein in various organs. The disease can lead to a wide range of symptoms, primarily affecting the peripheral nerves, heart, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and eyes. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are crucial in improving patient outcomes and quality of life. Ongoing research and advancements in treatment options provide hope for the future management of hATTR amyloidosis.