Angina

Angina is a condition that causes chest pain or discomfort due to a lack of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. There are different types, including stable, unstable, and variant angina. Symptoms may include chest pressure, pain radiating to other areas, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medications, and procedures/surgeries. Preventive measures, such as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing risk factors, can help reduce the risk of angina.

Best medications for Angina

Drug NameClassRouteStandard DosagePrice
Verapamil HClCalcium Channel BlockersIntravenous2.5, 4-240, 80, 360, 1-240, 200, 2-180, 2-240, 120, 180, 240, 300, 40, 100 MG/MLfrom$5.07
Propranolol HClBeta BlockersOral4.28, 60, 80, 120, 1, 20, 160, 10, 40 MG/5MLfrom$24.26
FragminAnticoagulantsSubcutaneous7500, 95000, 10000, 15000, 2500, 5000, 12500, 18000 UNIT/3.8MLfrom$1041.91
NorvascCalcium Channel BlockersOral2.5, 5, 10 MGfrom$8.50
CaduetCalcium Channel Blocker / Statin CombinationsOral5-80, 5-40, 5-10, 10-40, 10-20, 5-20, 10-10, 10-80 MGfrom$33.36
ProcardiaCalcium Channel BlockersOral60, 90, 10, 30 MGfrom$5.94
Procardia XLCalcium Channel BlockersOral60, 90, 30 MGfrom$11.59
NitrostatNitratesSublingual0.4, 0.3, 0.6 MGfrom$5.63
Nitro-DurNitratesTransdermal0.4, 0.8, 0.3, 0.2, 0.6, 0.1 MG/HRfrom$16.50
NitroMistNitratesTranslingual400 MCG/SPRAYfrom$216.29

Introduction

Angina is a common but serious medical condition that involves chest pain or discomfort. It occurs when the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina is typically a symptom of an underlying heart problem, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), which occurs when the blood vessels supplying the heart become narrow or blocked.

Types of Angina

There are different types of angina, each with its own characteristics:

1. Stable Angina

Stable angina is the most common form of angina. It follows a predictable pattern, typically triggered by physical exertion or emotional stress. The chest pain or discomfort is usually relieved with rest or medication.

2. Unstable Angina

Unstable angina is more severe and unpredictable compared to stable angina. The chest pain may occur at rest or with minimal physical exertion, and the episodes may be more frequent and prolonged. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency as it may signify an impending heart attack.

3. Variant (Prinzmetal's) Angina

Variant angina is a rare form of angina caused by a spasm in the coronary artery, leading to a temporary reduction in blood flow to the heart. It often occurs at rest and can be severe. Unlike other types of angina, it is not typically associated with CAD or other underlying heart conditions.

Symptoms of Angina

The primary symptom of angina is chest pain or discomfort. However, the sensation can vary among individuals. Some common symptoms include:

  • Pressure, tightness, or squeezing in the chest

  • Pain radiating to the arms, shoulders, jaw, neck, back, or stomach

  • Shortness of breath

  • Fatigue

  • Nausea

  • Sweating

It's important to note that symptoms may differ between men and women. Women may experience less typical symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, or abdominal discomfort rather than intense chest pain.

Treatment Options

The goal of angina treatment is to relieve symptoms, improve the quality of life, and reduce the risk of heart attack or other cardiovascular complications. Treatment options may include:

Lifestyle Changes

  • Adopting a heart-healthy diet low in saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium

  • Engaging in regular physical activity as recommended by a healthcare professional

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Quitting smoking

Medications

  • Nitroglycerin to provide immediate relief during angina episodes

  • Beta-blockers to reduce heart rate and blood pressure

  • Calcium channel blockers to relax and widen blood vessels

  • Aspirin or other antiplatelet medications to prevent blood clots

Procedures and Surgeries

  • Angioplasty and stenting to open narrowed or blocked coronary arteries

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to reroute blood flow around blocked arteries

It is important for individuals with angina to closely follow their prescribed treatment plan and regularly communicate with their healthcare provider to manage symptoms effectively and reduce the risk of complications.

Prevention

While certain risk factors for angina, such as age and family history, cannot be changed, there are measures individuals can take to reduce the risk of developing angina or its complications:

  • Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular exercise

  • Controlling blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and diabetes

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Avoiding or quitting smoking

  • Managing stress levels

By implementing these preventive strategies, individuals can support overall heart health and reduce the likelihood of developing angina or