Dry Eye

Dry eye, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a common condition caused by insufficient tear production or rapid tear evaporation. It can cause discomfort, blurry vision, and irritation. Risk factors include age, environmental factors, medications, and certain medical conditions. Symptoms include dryness, irritation, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment options include artificial tears, lifestyle changes, prescription medications, and in-office procedures. Prevention strategies involve practicing good eye hygiene and taking blink breaks.

Best medications for Dry Eye

Drug NameClassRouteStandard DosagePrice
RestasisCNI ImmunosuppressantsOphthalmic0.05 %from$50.78
XiidraLFA-1 AntagonistsOphthalmic5 %from$345.12
Artificial TearsDemulcentsOphthalmic0.1-0.3, 0.5-0.6, 0.2-0.2-1, 1-0.3, 1, 5-6, 83-15, 1.4from$3.67
EysuvisCorticosteroidsOphthalmic0.25 %from$496.15
MieboSemifluorinated AlkanesOphthalmic1.338 GM/MLfrom$749.14
LacrisertDemulcentsOphthalmic5 MGfrom$302.71
TyrvayaCholinergic Agonists0.03 MG/ACTfrom$648.16
CequaCNI ImmunosuppressantsOphthalmic0.09 %from$289.85


Dry eye, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a common condition that occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. It can lead to discomfort, irritation, and blurry vision, affecting millions of people worldwide. While dry eye is often a chronic condition, it can be managed with various treatments, ranging from lifestyle changes to medication.

Causes and Risk Factors

Dry eye can have several underlying causes and is often influenced by various risk factors. Some common causes include:

1. Age

As people get older, it is common for tear production to decrease, making them more susceptible to dry eye.

2. Environmental Factors

Exposure to dry or windy climates, air conditioning, and indoor heating systems can contribute to the development of dry eye.

3. Medications

Certain medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, and hormone replacement therapy, can reduce tear production and worsen dry eye symptoms.

4. Medical Conditions

Health conditions like diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and thyroid problems can contribute to dry eye.


The symptoms of dry eye can vary from person to person, but common signs include:

1. Dryness

A persistent dry sensation in the eyes is the most common symptom of dry eye.

2. Irritation

Redness, itching, stinging, and burning sensations may occur due to inadequate lubrication.

3. Blurred Vision

Smudged or blurred vision, especially during extended periods of reading or computer use, can be a symptom of dry eye.

4. Sensitivity to Light

Increased sensitivity to bright lights, causing discomfort and squinting, can be associated with dry eye.


The treatment of dry eye aims to alleviate symptoms, improve tear production, and maintain eye health. Some common treatment options include:

1. Artificial Tears

Regular use of over-the-counter artificial tears can help to lubricate the eyes and relieve dryness.

2. Lifestyle Changes

Making environmental adjustments such as using a humidifier, avoiding smoking, wearing sunglasses outdoors, and taking frequent breaks from digital screens can help manage dry eye symptoms.

3. Prescription Medications

In more severe cases, prescription medications, such as anti-inflammatory eye drops or oral medications, may be recommended to reduce inflammation and increase tear production.

4. In-Office Procedures

In certain instances, your doctor may suggest in-office procedures like punctal plugs, which help to block tear drainage, or meibomian gland expression to improve oil gland function.


While it may not be possible to prevent dry eye entirely, some strategies can reduce the risk and severity of symptoms. These include:

1. Eye Hygiene

Maintaining good eye hygiene by regularly cleaning the eyelids and avoiding rubbing or touching the eyes can help prevent exacerbation of dry eye symptoms.

2. Blink Breaks

Taking frequent blink