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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a common and deadly disease that primarily affects the cells lining the air passages. It is categorized into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Smoking is the leading cause, but other factors like genetics and exposure to certain substances increase the risk. Early-stage lung cancer often shows no symptoms, but as it progresses, symptoms like cough, chest pain, and weight loss may appear. Diagnosis includes imaging tests and biopsies. Treatment

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Lung cancer is a malignant condition that develops in the lung tissue, primarily in the cells lining the air passages. It is one of the most common types of cancer, and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Types of Lung Cancer

There are two main types of lung cancer: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC is the most common type, accounting for around 85% of all lung cancer cases. SCLC, although less common, tends to grow and spread more quickly than NSCLC.

Causes and Risk Factors

The primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, with about 85% of all cases attributed to tobacco use. Exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, and other occupational hazards also significantly increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Certain genetic mutations and a family history of lung cancer may predispose individuals to the disease.

Signs and Symptoms

Early-stage lung cancer often presents no symptoms, making it difficult to detect in its initial stages. However, as the disease progresses, common signs and symptoms may include:

  • Chronic cough that worsens over time

  • Chest pain or discomfort

  • Coughing up blood

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Shortness of breath


To diagnose lung cancer, various tests and procedures are employed, including:

  • Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan

  • Sputum cytology to examine expelled mucus for cancer cells

  • Lung biopsy to collect a tissue sample for analysis

  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan to determine the extent of the disease


The choice of treatment for lung cancer depends on several factors, such as the type and stage of cancer, overall health, and individual preferences. Treatment options may include:

  • Surgery to remove the tumor and nearby affected tissue

  • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells using medications

  • Radiation therapy to target and destroy cancer cells with high-energy rays

  • Immunotherapy to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells

  • Targeted therapy to block specific abnormalities within cancer cells


While not all cases of lung cancer can be prevented, certain lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk:

  • Avoid smoking and tobacco use

  • Minimize exposure to secondhand smoke and environmental pollutants

  • Test homes for radon gas and take necessary measures to reduce exposure

  • Follow proper safety guidelines when working with asbestos or other hazardous substances

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a balanced diet


Lung cancer is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that necessitates early detection and timely intervention. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options is essential for improving outcomes and reducing the impact of this disease on individuals and society as a