HomeDrug ClassesXanthine Oxidase Inhibitors

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors: Uses, Common Brands, and Safety Info

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are drugs used to manage gout by reducing uric acid levels. Common brands include allopurinol and febuxostat. These medications are generally safe but can cause side effects and may interact with other drugs. It is important to follow dosage recommendations and report any concerning symptoms to healthcare professionals.

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are a class of drugs primarily used in the management of gout, a form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints. These medications work by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, helping to prevent the formation of new crystals and to dissolve existing ones. By lowering uric acid levels, xanthine oxidase inhibitors can help alleviate the pain and inflammation associated with gout and prevent further damage to the joints.


Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are specifically prescribed for individuals with gout who have elevated levels of uric acid or frequent gout attacks. By normalizing uric acid levels, these medications can prevent the occurrence of acute gout attacks, reduce the frequency and severity of attacks, and promote the healing of inflamed joints. They are generally not used as first-line treatment but rather reserved for those who do not respond adequately to lifestyle changes and other gout medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or colchicine.

Common Brands

Several xanthine oxidase inhibitors are available on the market, each with its own brand name. Allopurinol and febuxostat are two of the most commonly prescribed medications in this class. Allopurinol is available as a generic drug as well as under brand names such as Zyloprim, while febuxostat is primarily marketed under the brand name Uloric. It is important to note that availability and brand names may vary depending on geographical location.


Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are generally considered safe and well-tolerated when used as prescribed. However, like any medication, they can cause side effects in some individuals. Common side effects may include rash, gastrointestinal upset, liver function abnormalities, and headache. Serious allergic reactions are rare but can occur. It is important to promptly report any unusual or severe side effects to a healthcare professional. These medications may interact with other drugs, so it is crucial to inform your healthcare provider about all the medications, supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may also interact with certain foods and beverages, such as alcohol, as they can affect the metabolism and excretion of these medications. As with any medical condition, it is vital to follow the recommended dosage and treatment schedule provided by your healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of uric acid levels may be necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the medication. It is important to note that xanthine oxidase inhibitors are not typically recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding individuals unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. In conclusion, xanthine oxidase inhibitors are a class of drugs used in the management of gout, specifically by reducing uric acid levels and preventing gout attacks. Commonly prescribed brands include allopurinol (Zyloprim) and febuxostat (Uloric). While generally safe, they can cause side effects and interact with other medications. It is crucial to follow the guidance of healthcare professionals and report any concerning symptoms.

List of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors