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Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2, also known as Adult-Onset Diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. This article explores the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Lifestyle modifications, medications, insulin therapy, and blood sugar monitoring are key components of managing this condition. Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 Diabetes.

Best medications for Diabetes Type 2

Drug NameClassRouteStandard DosagePrice
TrulicityGLP-1 AgonistsSubcutaneous1.5, 3, 0.75, 4.5 MG/0.5MLfrom$243.82
MounjaroGIP Receptor / GLP-1 Receptor AgonistsSubcutaneous2.5, 15, 5, 10, 7.5, 12.5 MG/0.5MLfrom$1039.32
HumaLOGInsulinsSubcutaneous200, (75-25) 100, (50-50) 100, 100 UNIT/MLfrom$16.15
AdmelogInsulinsSubcutaneous100 UNIT/MLfrom$16.15
LyumjevInsulinsInjection200, 100 UNIT/MLfrom$271.39
HumuLIN RInsulinsInjection500, 100 UNIT/MLfrom$46.72
HumuLIN NInsulinsSubcutaneous100 UNIT/MLfrom$47.31
HumuLIN 70/30InsulinsSubcutaneous(70-30) 100 UNIT/MLfrom$47.31
Janumet XRGliptin / Biguanide CombinationsOral50-1000, 50-500, 100-1000 MGfrom$557.79
JanuviaGliptinsOral25, 50, 100 MGfrom$558.12

Introduction

Diabetes Type 2, also known as Adult-Onset Diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. Unlike Diabetes Type 1, which is an autoimmune condition where the body does not produce enough insulin, Type 2 Diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. This condition, often linked to lifestyle choices, can lead to serious health complications if not properly managed.

Causes and Risk Factors

Type 2 Diabetes typically develops due to a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some common risk factors include:

  • Obesity and excess body weight, particularly around the waist

  • Sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats

  • Family history of diabetes

  • Advancing age

  • Ethnicity (people of African, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American descent are more prone)

  • Gestational diabetes during pregnancy

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes may develop gradually and can vary from person to person. Some common signs and symptoms include:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination

  • Unexplained weight loss or gain

  • Fatigue and weakness

  • Blurred vision

  • Slow-healing wounds and frequent infections

  • Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet

To diagnose Type 2 Diabetes, doctors typically perform several tests, including fasting blood sugar tests, oral glucose tolerance tests, and HbA1c tests. These tests help determine how well the body is regulating blood sugar levels and can aid in developing an appropriate treatment plan.

Treatment and Management

The primary goal of Type 2 Diabetes treatment is to manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications. Depending on the individual's needs, treatment plans may include the following:

  1. Lifestyle Modifications:

- Adopting a well-balanced, nutritious diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. - Engaging in regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight. - Quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption.

  1. Medications:

- Injectable and oral medications may be prescribed to help lower blood sugar levels, improve insulin sensitivity, reduce glucose production in the liver, or stimulate insulin release from the pancreas.

  1. Insulin Therapy:

- In some cases, insulin injections may be necessary to keep blood sugar levels within the target range. Insulin can be long-acting, short-acting, or rapid-acting, depending on individual needs.

  1. Blood Sugar Monitoring:

- Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels using a glucose meter is crucial for effective management of Type 2 Diabetes. This helps identify patterns and adjust treatment accordingly.

Complications and Prevention

Untreated or poorly managed Type 2 Diabetes can lead to various complications, including:

  • Cardiovascular diseases (heart attack, stroke)

  • Kidney damage (nephropathy)

  • Nerve damage (neuropathy)

  • Eye damage (retinopathy) leading to vision problems

  • Foot damage (ulcers, infections) that may sometimes require amputation

  • Skin conditions and infections

  • Hearing impairment

While some risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes cannot be modified, such as age or family history, adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent or delay its onset. This includes maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing stress levels.

Conclusion

Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires lifelong management. By