HomeConditionsKidney Disease

Kidney Disease

Kidney disease, also known as renal disease, affects the kidneys' ability to filter waste and maintain overall health. There are different types, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI), and polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Causes and risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, family history, and age. Symptoms can include fatigue, fluid retention, urinary issues, and electrolyte imbalances. Treatment options range from medication and dialysis to kidney transplant and

Best medications for Kidney Disease

Drug NameClassRouteStandard DosagePrice
PhosLoPhosphate BindersOral667 MGfrom$8.90
PhoslyraPhosphate BindersOral667 MG/5MLfrom$173.72
RetacritErythropoiesis-Stimulating AgentsInjection40000, 3000, 10000, 4000, 2000, 20000 UNIT/MLfrom$112.93
ZemplarVitamin D AnaloguesIntravenous5, 2, 1 MCG/MLfrom$30.77
FosrenolPhosphate BindersOral500, 750, 1000 MGfrom$58.46
TarpeyoCorticosteroidsOral4 MGfrom$4094.73
RenvelaPhosphate BindersOral2.4, 0.8, 800 MGfrom$14.40
JesduvroqHIF-PH InhibitorsOral6, 8, 1, 4, 2 MGfrom$119.99
FarxigaSGLT2 InhibitorsOral5, 10 MGfrom$241.32
SensiparCalcimimeticsOral60, 90, 30 MGfrom$16.73


Kidney disease, also known as renal disease, refers to a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the body's overall health by filtering waste products and excess fluid from the blood, regulating electrolyte levels, and producing hormones that are responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells. When the kidneys are impaired, these essential functions are compromised, leading to various complications.

Types of Kidney Disease

There are several different types of kidney disease, each with its own causes and effects. Some common forms of kidney disease include: 1. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): CKD is a long-term condition that gradually worsens over time. It is often caused by conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. 2. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): AKI, also known as acute renal failure, occurs suddenly and is usually reversible. It can be caused by severe infections, dehydration, kidney stones, or medication side effects. 3. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD): PKD is an inherited disorder characterized by the growth of cysts in the kidneys. These cysts can gradually interfere with kidney function.

Causes and Risk Factors

Various factors can contribute to the development of kidney disease. Some common causes and risk factors include: 1. Diabetes: Uncontrolled diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys over time, leading to kidney disease. 2. High Blood Pressure: High blood pressure can strain the blood vessels in the kidneys, impairing their proper function. 3. Family History: Some types of kidney disease, such as PKD, are hereditary, meaning they can be passed down from generation to generation. 4. Age: The risk of kidney disease increases with age, as the kidneys naturally become less efficient over time.

Symptoms and Complications

Kidney disease often progresses silently in its early stages, and symptoms may not become evident until significant damage has occurred. However, some common symptoms and complications associated with kidney disease include: 1. Fatigue and Weakness: Kidney disease can cause a decrease in red blood cell production, leading to fatigue and general weakness. 2. Fluid Retention: Impaired kidney function can result in fluid retention, leading to swelling in the legs, ankles, or face. 3. Urinary Issues: Changes in urinary habits, such as increased or decreased frequency, foamy urine, or blood in the urine, may be signs of kidney dysfunction. 4. Electrolyte Imbalances: The kidneys regulate electrolyte levels in the body, so kidney disease can lead to imbalances, causing symptoms such as muscle cramps, nausea, and irregular heartbeat.

Treatment and Management

The treatment and management of kidney disease depend on its underlying cause and the stage of the disease. Some general approaches include: 1. Medications: Certain medications can help control blood pressure, reduce proteinuria (excessive protein in the urine), and manage complications associated with kidney disease. 2. Dialysis: In more advanced cases, dialysis may be required to perform the functions of the kidneys artificially. 3. Kidney Transplant: For end-stage kidney disease, a kidney transplant may be an option, replacing the diseased kidney with a healthy one from a living or deceased donor. 4. Lifestyle Changes: Adopting a healthy lifestyle is crucial in managing kidney disease. This includes controlling blood