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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement control. It is characterized by motor symptoms like tremors and slowness of movement. The exact cause is unknown, but genetics and environmental factors may contribute. Diagnosis is based on medical history and neurological examination. Treatment involves medications to manage dopamine levels and surgery in advanced cases. Ongoing research aims to better understand the disease and develop more effective treatments.

Best medications for Parkinson's Disease

Drug NameClassRouteStandard DosagePrice
SinemetDDCIsOral50-200, 25-250, 25-100, 10-100 MGfrom$3.00
DhivyDDCIsOral25-100 MGfrom$4.00
rOPINIRole HCl ERDopamine AgonistsOral6, 8, 12, 4, 2 MGfrom$30.77
LevsinAnticholinergicsInjection0.5, 0.125 MG/MLfrom$8.63
DuopaDDCIsPEG-J4.63-20 MG/MLfrom$229.50
ComtanCOMT InhibitorsOral200 MGfrom$14.98
ExelonCholinesterase InhibitorsTransdermal9.5, 4.6, 13.3 MG/24HRfrom$42.26
AzilectMAOIsOral0.5, 1 MGfrom$30.77
Amantadine HClNMDA Receptor AntagonistsOral129 & 193, 129, 68.5, 137, 50, 258, 193, 100 MGfrom$4.50


Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects movement control. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, after Alzheimer's, with approximately 10 million people worldwide living with the condition. Parkinson's Disease occurs when the brain's dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra region begin to deteriorate and die off. As a result, individuals with Parkinson's experience a range of motor symptoms, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's can also lead to non-motor symptoms such as depression, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment.


The exact cause of Parkinson's Disease is still unknown, but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a role in its development. Certain genetic mutations have been linked to an increased risk of Parkinson's, although they are relatively rare. Additionally, exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and herbicides, has been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. However, it is important to note that not everyone exposed to these factors will develop Parkinson's, indicating that there are likely other contributing factors yet to be fully understood.


Diagnosing Parkinson's Disease can be challenging, as there is no specific test or biomarker that definitively confirms the presence of the condition. Instead, physicians rely on a careful evaluation of the individual's medical history, as well as a thorough neurological examination, to make a diagnosis. Imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans, may also be used to help rule out other conditions that may mimic Parkinson's symptoms.


Although there is currently no cure for Parkinson's Disease, several treatment options are available to manage its symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals living with the condition. The most common approach involves using medications that help replenish dopamine levels in the brain or mimic its effects. Levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are among the medications commonly prescribed. In advanced cases, deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery may be recommended to help control symptoms. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can also play vital roles in managing motor symptoms and promoting overall well-being.

Future Directions

Research into Parkinson's Disease is ongoing, and scientists are continually working to better understand the underlying causes and develop more effective treatments. There is hope that advancements in genetics and neuroimaging techniques will lead to improved diagnostic methods. Additionally, research into neuroprotective therapies aims to slow the progression of the disease and ultimately find a cure. Parkinson's Disease remains a focus of medical research and public health efforts worldwide.


Parkinson's Disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and slowness of movement. It has a significant impact on the lives of those affected, as well as their families and caregivers. While current treatments can help manage symptoms, ongoing research is vital to enhance our understanding of the disease and develop more effective interventions. With further advancements, it is hoped that better diagnostic tools, improved therapies, and ultimately, a cure can be found for Parkinson's Disease.